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Monday, April 29, 2019

Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh 

Picture Credit: Google Images



Andhra Pradesh at a Glance:


Date of formation
November 1,1956
Date of Reformation
June 2,2014
Area
162,970 km2
Population
49,386,799
Capital
Hyderabad
Major Rivers
Godavari, Krishna, Pennar, etc.
Languages
Telugu, Hindi, Urdu, English, Kannada & Tamil
Neighbours
Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Puducherry, Tamil Nadu, Telangana & Karnataka
State Animal
BlackBuck
State Bird
Indian Roller
State Tree
Neem
State Flower
Water Lily, Nelumbo
Literacy Rate
67.41%
Sex Ratio
996

Introduction to the state ANDHRA PRADESH:


Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India. Earlier it was the fourth largest state of the country, but after its separation from the new state Telangana on 2 June 2014 it became seventh largest state of the country with an area of 162,970 km2 (62,920 sq. mi). Andhra Pradesh is situated on the south-eastern coast of India with a coastline of 974 km that makes it a state with the second-longest coastline after Gujarat in India. As stated above it got separated with the new state Telangana which was earlier a part of Andhra Pradesh; thus it is bordered by Telangana in the north-west region, Neighbours Chhattisgarh and Odisha also borders it from north-east, Karnataka borders it from west, Tamil Nadu from south and of course Bay of Bengal lies at the east. It is the tenth-most populous state of India with the population of 49,386,799 people. Capital of Andhra Pradesh is Hyderabad but it was transferred to Telangana after separation; but Andhra Pradesh reorganisation Act 2014 makes Hyderabad the capital of both the states but not for more than ten years of separation. Post that Amravati is proposed to be the new capital, under the jurisdiction of the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (APCRDA).Also Vishakhapatnam is the largest city of Andhra Pradesh with an area of 682km2.  The official language of this state is Telugu which is also said to be a classical language of India.
Two major regions of Andhra Pradesh are Rayalaseema(southwestern part of the state) and Coastal Andhra (east and north, bordering Bay of Bengal) which holds 9 districts of the whole state. The Krishna and Godavari are the major rivers of the state. The state is also popular for its culture, festivals, cuisines, dolls, paint, architecture, stone crafting, folk dance, etc.

HISTORY

For Andhra Pradesh, its history is matter of pride because it enhances their culture and heritage with the rich historical tales. Let’s take a brief idea about the Andhra’s rich historical heritage……….

Nomenclature:

An ancient Sanskrit book such as Aitareya Brahmana acknowledges to a tribal group named as Andhra. Aitreya Brahmana of The Rig Veda mentions that, Andhra moved from north India and got settled in south India. It is written in a Puranic literature that The Satvahanas are named as Andhra, Andhara-Jateeya and Andhrabhrtya. They never referred themselves in any of the coins or the Shilalekhas, may be they were called Andhras just because of their tribal look or because Andhra Region was the place where they got settled.

Early History:
Mauryan Empire ruled the parts of Andhra region as concluded from the Archaeological evidence from places like Vaddamanu, Amaravati and Dhranikota. For the Mauryan Empire Amaravati was the centre region to rule. But smaller kingdom replaced the Mauryan rule after the death of King Ashoka in Andhra region.
The Deccan region was being dominated by Satvahanas dynasty from 1st century BC to 3rd century. They were also known as Andhras.They made Amaravathi and Dhranikota their capital, which was referred to the place where Nagarjuna, a philosopher of Mahayana lived during 2nd and 3rd century by Buddhists. The Satvahanas were defeated by Andhra Ishvakus in the Krishna river valley in latter half of the 2nd century. During 5th and 6th century Vishnukundinas were the first great dynasty they ruled the entire Andhra country including Kalinga and Telangana playing an important role during that time period.
Later, from 7th century to 1130 C.E. The Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi who ruled for about 500years merged with Chola Empire and ruled until 1189 C.E. but they were swept away by Hoysalas and Yadavas. Later Kuktiyas constructed several forts while ruling Andhra Pradesh for 200 years but they were defeated by Musunuri Nayakas. In early  14th century Reddy Dynasty ruled from 1325-1448 CE from Kondaveedu. They constructed a Fort at Kondaveedu which was captured by Gajpathis of Orrisa, and later ruined by Muslim rulers of Bahmani kingdom 1458. King of Vijaynagar krishnaDevRaya took over it in 1516; Golconda Sultans fought for it and captured it. But again VijayNagarns reconquered it. Pemmasani Nayaks were the greatest kings during that time they ruled Andhra Pradesh for 200 years with Gandikota as capital.
The Vijayanagar Empire empowered Art and literature in Sanskrit, Telugu, Tamil and Kannada to progress on another level. Also the Carnatic music developed into the modern form. There is a significant importance of archaeology, architecture that were built during Vijaynagara kings time period and were locations of shrines dedicated to The Shiva, The Vishnu and The Veerbhadra. Mural paintings and shilalekhas can be found at the temples, but also granite Nandi can be seen there too. Temples of Papnatheshwar, Raghunath, Shree Rama and Maa Durga are present at Kurma Saila, which is a Tortoise shaped hill.


Modern History:
Qutub shahi dynasty conquered Andhra and ruled for 200 years until 17th century. From the beginning of 19th century the British East India Company became a part of Madras Presidency, the region emerged as coastal Andhra region. Nizam rulers of Hyderabad gave 5 territories to British but retained control over interior provinces. Also the French occupied Yanam, and held it until 1954. The largest Hindu kingdom was The Vijaynagaram in Andhra Pradesh in 1947.
In 1947, India got freedom from the United Kingdom. Nizam still wanted Hyderabad to retain independence, but people of Hyderabad started a movement Operation Polo and thus Hyderabad was joined to the republic of India in 1948.

Post-independence History:
Andhra became the first state to gain an identity on the basis of language. The state reorganisation Act formed in Andhra Pradesh to merge the state with Telugu speaking areas of Hyderabad. Hyderabad was the capital of this new formed state. Marathi- speaking areas of this state were merged with Bombay and Mysore was given Kannada speaking areas.
On February 2014 a bill was passed by parliament and approved by the President of India under Andhra Pradesh reorganisation Act, 2014 to form a new state Telangana with 10 districts. Hyderabad as a joint capital for 10 years.

Geography:

Geographically, this state is located between longitudes of 77° E and 84° 40' E and the latitudes of 12° 41' N and 22° N. this state covers an area of 2,75,045 sq. km., as it is the 4th largest state of the nation. ). Andhra Pradesh is situated on the south-eastern coast of India with a coastline of 974 km that makes it a state with the second-longest coastline after Gujarat in India). Andhra Pradesh is situated on the south-eastern coast of India with a coastline of 974 km that makes it a state with the second-longest coastline after Gujarat in India. It is bordered by Telangana in the north-west region, Neighbours Chhattisgarh and Odisha also borders it from north-east, Karnataka borders it from west, Tamil Nadu from south and of course Bay of Bengal lies at the east. It is the tenth-most populous state of India with the population of 49,386,799 people.
Andhra Pradesh is Mountainous from north. Mahendragiri is the highest peak that rises 1500 meters above sea level. The major rivers of the state are the Krishna and The Godavari. There is a rich diversity of flora and fauna. Whereas, agriculture plays an important role in coastal plains.
The total forest area of the state is 22,862 km2 managed by Andhra Pradesh forest department. Also there are many national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, bird sanctuaries, zoological parks that attracts most of the tourists.
Depending on the geography, summers get really hot on the coastal plains as compared to other areas i.e. up to 41°C.Summers starts from March and end till June. Season of tropical rains starts from July to September. The remaining 5 months October to February are the winter season but winters are not really cold because of the coastal region. But Lambasingi of Vishakhapatnam popularly known as Kashmir of Andhra Pradesh receives snowfall because it is situated 3,300 ft. above sea level, and that makes it the only place to get snowfall in entire south India.

Religions:

Most of the Andhra Pradesh citizens follow Hinduism, but Muslims are a minority there. Religious groups of the state are Hindu (90.87%), Muslims (7.32%) & Christianity (1.38%), according to census 2011.
The Second richest temple of the world is the Venkateshwara Temple at Tirupati. Millions of devotees from all over the world visits there throughout the year.
A lot of Buddhist activities rather extraordinary Buddhist activities for more than 1000years happened at Krishna River Valley at Andhra Pradesh early in the history of Buddhism.  If not earlier then also at least the third century BCE time period can be traced by the ancient Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda and the Jaggayyapeta spot, present at Krishna River Valley.
Andhra Pradesh played a major role in the development of Buddhism in India. Many of the wise people suggested that the Prajnaparamita developed in the south India among Mahasamghikas at the Krishna River.*(Prajnaparamita was related to the most historic and ancient Mahayana sutra)


Economy:

The economy of the state is very stable and consistent. The state ranked 8th among other states of India for GSDP of the financial year 2014-15. Domestic product of industrial sector accounts for ₹ 507.45 billion and agricultural sector for ₹545.99 billion. There were some Indians from Andhra Pradesh who were in the list of top 100 richest Indian by Forbes magazine.

Agriculture:

Andhra Pradesh’s economy is based on mainly the agriculture and the livestock. The most important sector of economy is Agriculture throughout the India and Andhra Pradesh as well. This state is one of the main rice producers and known as the “Rice Bowl of India” and thus 60% of its population is employed in this field of agriculture. Agriculture zone are divided into three zones Chittoor district, Krishna district and Guntur district for various agricultural products.
Coarse grain, pulses, oil seeds, cotton, minor millets, maize, sugarcane, tobacco, chili, jowar, mango nuts, and bajra are also cultivated by farmers. Crops used to extract oil are popular.
Also this state is the largest producer of eggs in India. Hence, livestock and poultry is a profitable business. Another business option is fishery and shrimp production as they contribute 10% and & 70% production respectively,

Infrastructure:

The state is planning to make each and every service of the state digital. The state also invests in making infrastructures like highways, as NH 16 passes through Andhra Pradesh. Sea ports are also constructed in the state for import and export at Vishakhapatnam port and Krishnapatnam port. Andhra Pradesh also has a shipyard for building ships at Vishakhapatnam. Vishakhapatnam, Tirupati and Vijayawada are the major airports of the state and also the international airports.
For transport, railways, roads, airport and sea ports plays a major role.

Industrial sector:

Industrial Sectors like automobile, textile, pharma etc. are the key sectors located in Chittoor district. Also firms like Kellogg’s, Colgate, Palmolive, Cadbury, PepsiCo, and etc. homed Andhra as an integrated business city. The Anantapur district of the state is also a destination for automobile industries. Also the development of IT and biotechnology is being improved in the state.
The mineral resources are stored in Andhra Pradesh. The geological formations contain a wide variety of industrial minerals and building stones. Andhra is the top producer of mica in India. natural gas, iron ore, gold diamonds, graphite, silica sand, dolomite, fire clay, manganese, limestone, oils, are the minerals majorly found in Andhra Pradesh. Also Mining and power plants are the resources in Andhra Pradesh. Mining is one of the growth engines of industrial sector. On the other hand the state is top solar power generating state all over the country. Other power plants are also installed in the state as they supply electricity to the state.

Tourism:

Beaches like Rushikonda, Mypadu, Suryalanka etc. are the centre of attraction for the tourists. Also caves like Borra caves, Undavalli caves, India’s second longest cave Belum Cave etc. gives a little adventurous feel to the tourists. Hills and valleys such as Papi hills, Araku valley, Horsley hills etc. attract tourists. Arma konda peak at Vishakhapatnam is the highest peak of eastern Ghats.
For the religious and spiritual feel temple destinations, Masjids, Gurudwaras, churches and Buddhist centres are also available that gives one a sort of inner peace.

Education:

As per census 2011, literacy rate of the state is 67.41%. Government and Private schools provides primary and secondary education under administration of state school education department. Municipal, residential, social welfare residential, jila parishad and private schools are included. More than 6864201 students are enrolled in these schools under Telugu, odiya, English, Tamil, Urdu, Hindi, and Kannada medium of instruction. The directorate of govt. examination of state administers conducts the secondary school examination. Higher education is administered by department of higher education. Universities like AIIMS, IIM, IIT, NIT, IITDM, IIIT sri city, IISER tirupati, IIFT Kakinada, Agriculture University, Vignan University, RGUKT, GITAM, and other state universities, etc. are the educational resources of the state providing higher education in veterinary, horticulture, law, Vedic, medical, technology etc. fields.
Many research centres are also available in the state along with a space research organisation known as Sriharikota range.

Sports:

Cricket, field hockey, football, skating, weightlifting, chess, cycling, badminton, tennis, etc. are the sports managed and looked after by sports authority of the state.















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